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Biological invasions (introduction, establishment and dispersal) of alien species from various groups of organisms outside their primary natural home range is becoming a global phenomenon. Invasive species often represent biological pollutants and can threaten the environmental safety of our country. Their establishment and wide spread involves undesirable economical, social, and environmental consequences and biodiversity decrease.
The importance of the problem is illustrated by such examples as colorado potato beetle, Amur sleeper (rotan), weeds of Ambrosia spp., Cuscuta spp., golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), phytopathogenic fungus phomopsis of the sunflower (Diaporthe helianthi), zebra mussel, comb jelly. The area occupied by the colorado potato beetle has reached 3 million hectares, that is 12,000 times more than 30 years ago. The allergic weed ambrosia has already covered 6 million hectares. The invasion of comb jelly into the Black and Caspian Seas has brought about a significant reduction in fish catches.
A number of dangerous aliens are approaching the Russian border at present. Among them are western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), which has already occupied 13 European countries for 10 years including even the Ukraine, and dangerous North American species of insects-pests of greenhouse and decorative plants etc. as well as many alien plants and phytopathogenic fungi.
New ways of invasions of dangerous aliens are constantly arising. They are brought to Russia in threatening amounts with imported agricultural and flower products, decorative shrubs and trees, and ballast waters.
Inefficient sanitary control of imported plants and animals transferred across the state borders promotes further widening of invasion flows. Some of the imported products contain the invasive species in the hidden form. Moreover the specific situation in Russia is further complicated by large isolated territories with potential invasive species which are capable to disperse outside.
Cases of concealing the information on the transfer and establishment of alien harmful organisms, including quarantine species, in the certain regions and greenhouses are becoming more and more common.
The Plant Quarantine Service of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation in its modern state is not able to cope with invasions of alien herbivorous organisms into Russia and needs a serious reformation.
The phytosanitary legislation (in particular, the Plant Quarantine Law) often contradicts with other national legislative acts (e.g. The Natural Environment Law) and the international legislative provisions signed by Russia.
Besides, there is no united organization which could combine efforts of all interested institutions dealing with the invasion problem.
The problem of the invasion of alien species in the Russian Federation is under the observation of a great number of various official departments (Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Nature Resources, State Committee for Fisheries of the Russian Federation), research and development organizations (A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Papanin Institute of Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk Marine Biological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanograpfy, Research Institute of the Azov sea Fishery, The Main Botanical Garden Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Institute for Plant Quarantine, Russian Institute of Phytopatology etc.), which are trying to solve only narrow specific aspects of the global problem, often involving only one group of organisms (fishes, mammals, insects, phytopathogenic microorganisms, nematodes, plants, etc.).
Nonetheless, many other countries pay much more attention to the invasion problem. There exist numerous national programs and projects, so that the international collaboration is widening. For example, the Global Invasive Species Program is realized under the auspices of authoritative international organizations (including CABI, IUCN, UNEP). Moreover, the invasion problem is significantly supported by the state financial resources.
The aim of the meeting was to exchange the information on the invasion problem, to coordinate mutual activities, and to discuss the necessity and possibility of establishing the united national center on the invasion problem in the Russian Federation.
This book includes the presentations delivered at the Round Table. They were devoted both to various groups of invasion organisms, including insects, fungi, plants, and to different aspects of the problem. Some of them are given below.
The Round Table included 52 representatives from 15 various official departments, research and development institutes, and higher educational institutions.
This Round Table was organized by the Deputy Director of the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Yury Yulianovich Dgebuadze and the Head of Department of Entomology & Biology Control of the Russian Institute for Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Ministry of the Russian Federation, Dr. Sergey Sergeevich Izhevskii.
принятая на заседании Круглого стола по проблеме Экологическая безопасность и инвазии чужеродных организмов, состоявшегося в рамках Всероссийской конференции по экологической безопасности (Москва, 4-5 июня 2002 г.).
Участники заседания Круглого стола единогласно приняли Резолюцию
adopted at the Round Table meeting on the problem Environmental safety and invasions of alien organisms held within the framework of the All-Russian conference on the environmental safety (Moscow, 4-5 June, 2002).
The resolution was carried unanimously. The participants of the Round Table propose:
Наверх Документ создан: 12.12.2005. Документ изменен: 11.02.2012
кабинетом «Биоинформатики и моделирования биологических процессов» ИПЭЭ РАН.
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