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MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS METHODS ROOM
The fragment of nucleotide sequence according to results of sequencing
The main results of 2004 were the comparative analysis of genetic diversity of populations of saiga (Saiga tatarica). Polyphyletic nature of the right-side relative to the Volga (European, subspecies S. tatarica tatarica) and left-side (Kazakhstan) groups was shown. It was suggested to view the Ural, Betpakdalinskaya and Ust'Urtskaya groups of saiga as subpopulations of entire left-side Kazakhstan population. Saigas of Mongolian (S. t. mongolica) population were genetically homogenous. It has been marked that the degree of genetic isolation between all populations of nominative subspecies (Saiga tatarica tatarica) will be increasing at present in connection with the general depression of their number.
The main results in 2005 were the studies of molecular-genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of musk-deer (Moschus moschiferus), Mongolian dzeren (Procapra gutturosa) and perevyazka (Vormela peregusna) - the mammals, included into the Red Data Book of Russia. It was established that Far-Eastern and Sakhalin populations were characterized by low genetic diversity that evidenced their critical state and necessity of the highest attention to their protection. It was established that the territory of Russia, Eastern Mongolia and China, an entire panmictic population of Mongolian dzeren inhabited. Under the carrying out of the works on introduction of dzeren into Russia as the individuals-promoters, the animals living in Mongolia may be used successfully. For the first time obtained in the world complete sequences of the cytochrome b of perevyazka (Vormela pergusna) allowed specification of the position of this species in the family of Martes. Molecular-genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of moose population (Alces alces) in the different regions of European part of Russia and Ural were also studied. It was determined that the groups of moose inhabiting these territories are greatly related genetically and refer to entire panmictic population. This testifies enough lengthy migrations of moose within the studied region and genetic unity of moose of Europe and Ural. The work based on DNA analysis of the specimens, collected by non-invasive methods, on determination of the species composition and distribution of Martes inhabiting one of the rivers of the Central-Forest Governmental Reserve was also undertaken. The developed in detail method can be used successfully for the study of the fauna of little Martes in other regions of the country.
The main result in 2006 was the generalization of previously obtained data and comparative analysis of ecological peculiarities and molecular-genetic variation in artiodactyls, differing in degree of food and biotopic selectivity - musk-deer, saiga, Mongolian dzeren and moose. It was shown that in big mammals - phytophages an essential influence on genetic diversity and population-genetic variability was made by food adaptations of species and temporal-spatial dynamics of forage resources. The principle differences in distribution of intra-species genetic variation in resident and migrating species of Ungulata were revealed.
For the first time on the basis of mitochondrial DNA analysis, molecular-genetic diversity of the species structure of swan goose (Anser cygnoides), the endangered species included into the Red Data Book of Russia was studied. Low genetic diversity of this species was determined. For the first time the study of genetic peculiarities in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) of the Sea of Okhotsk was undertaken, their genetic isolation from the individuals occurring along the American coast of the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was shown. The continuation of the analysis of genetic diversity of European moose has allowed the determination that the Ural region represents a transitional area between European and Western-Siberian regions of the species range. The continuation of the work on the study of genetic diversity of perevyazka allowed the demonstration of the low level of genetic variability in this species and the absence of expressed genetic differences between populations, occupying the central part of the areal. The continuation of the study of genetic diversity in musk-deer has allowed the revelation of concrete features determining different subspecies that can be used for identification of the regional association of the musk gland in the musk-deer, which comes in the world market, what is necessary for the control of the trade of musk glands, this highly valuable nature resource, and for the prevention of poaching and contraband.