|Laboratories \ Laboratory of Avian's Ecology and Behaviour Control \ Goals and Tasks|
|Goals and Tasks||Publications||Scientific Staff|
LABORATORY OF AVIAN'S ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR CONTROL
MAIN GOALS AND TASKS
Academician V.D. Ilyichev
Ecology of organisms and communities. Biological variety
The number and distribution of rare bird species in Moscow Region were studied in the course of preparation of the new edition of the Red Data Book of Moscow Region. Five year monitoring of the breeding success in Black-legged Kittiwake, Crested Auklet and Least Auklet was carried out in the northern part of the Bering Sea (St. Lawrenñe Island, 2000-2004). The method of express-evaluation of the number of Crested Auklet and Least Auklet was developed on the basis of birds' number on the water near the colony (St. Lawrenñe Island, 2000-2004). Modern number and distribution of Curlew (the species of the Red Data Book of the RF) was determined in Moscow Region (50-55 nesting pairs in 2003, the number of this species decreased since 1994). The importance of the lower part of the Moscow River in the Moscow Region (from the Moscow Circle Highway to the mouth) for the wintering of waterfowls (Goldeneyes in particular) was determined; increasing of number of the Goldeneye wintering here was shown for the period of 2004 - 2007. Modern number of gulls and terns in Moscow Region was determined in 2004-2007, the trends in the number change were revealed for each species from the middle of 1980s.
In the Lab a new direction of ecological photography is developed:
Environmental problems of biodamages
On the basis of the Laboratory a Research Group of Avian Ecology (RGAE) is working. The primary purpose of the RGAE is the development and introduction of measures on prevention of planes - birds collisions. Attached to RGAE the Coordination Center (CC) is working. CC coordinates the efforts of experts in aviation ornithology.
Tasks of Coordination Center:
Now RGAE fulfills the following kinds of activities:
The laboratory executes also activities on preventing of biodeterioration caused by birds, namely on protection of economic objects (electric power transmission lines, agricultural complexes, fishery ponds, monuments, buildings and others).
In the Laboratory
A new laser device on the basis of a steady solid-state laser with the wavelength of 540 nm, radiant power of 150 Mw and with optical focusing system was developed and tested. Results of the tests showed a high effectiveness of the complex, a drastic decline îf the number of avian population without any injury for birds. The device can be used in closed and open spaces, including aerodromes.
A program of digital complex for generation of acoustical repellents and ultra-sound signals was developed; these sounds are used for birds repelling from landing strips and the territories surrounding aerodromes. Software-based task planner of the device allows the organization of autonomic work of the complex in streaming or cyclic mode, determined by the user. Programming of digital complex and introduction of the changes into the program is performed by means of personal computer, connected through the standard USB interface. The presence of the digital output signals in microprocessor device permits allocation of the amplifiers and speakers at the distance up to 200 meters from the device.
For the first time the specialized informational system (IS) for ornithological and ecological monitoring was created within 15 km zone around the airport Sheremetyevo. This system based on map-ping allows evaluation of the ornithological and ecological situation in any concrete point of controlled area, i.e. the prognosis of the bird appearance of definite mass, flying with definite speed in definite point of air corridor. The IS was created for supplying of airdrome services with information targeted to prevention of airplane collisions with birds and conservation of ornithological resources.
Morphological characteristics of birds’ feathers
The important direction of our investigation is the studying of the fragments of bones and feathers for birds’ identification after collision with the airplanes. We are collecting osteo-feathery remains of birds and creating a database of remains. We define the bird taxonomy by color, form and microstructure of feather as well as by the size of bones. On the basis of reveled taxonomic differences of birds’ feathers we intend to create:
Besides, we create a DNA base of birds’ species dangerous for planes. The methods of DNA analysis allows to define the bird species with very small slices of biomaterial.
Bioacoustics and biolinguistics of birds
A new scientific trend, an ecological biolinguistics, has been developed, which studies relationships between the human speech and animal acoustic communicative systems. By means of the computer program "Electronic Ear" (the developer – the Research Center of Pattern Recognition, the chief – Cand. Techn. Sci. A.N. Varaksin) the structure of human speech, harmonic components of vocalization system of miscellaneous groups of animals, in particular, birds, mammalian and reptiles is studied. The program allows to get spectral-prosodic characteristics of a signal by means of thin structure analysis synchronously with the fundamental tone. Acoustic structure of the species signals of birds revealed a significant similarity with that of human voice signals.
For the first time in the world practice the data on comparison of phonemic characteristics of language and imitations of talking animals were obtained. The investigation of talking birds let throw the light upon the origin of speech. A phenomenon of inter-imitations between man and animals has been discovered: 1) the shaping human beings imitated the acoustic signaling of animals; 2) domesticated animals imitate now the man’s speech. The first process gave an origin to language formation, and the bases (acoustic material) of it were natural sounds, the signals of birds at the greatest extent.
Acoustical rehabilitating media with relaxing and stimulative effect were created for clinical and home use, as well as for acoustic medium optimization.