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Russian Journal of Biological Invasions

2010, issue 2


CONTENTS


Kravtsova L.S., Izhboldina L.A., Mekhanikova I.V., Pomazkina G.V., Belykh O.I. Naturalization of Elodea canadensis Mich. in Baikal Lake
Lusk S., Lusková V., Hanel L. The list of alien species in the ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic
Lusková V., Lusk S., Halačka K., Vetešník L. Carassius auratus gibelio the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic
Mamilov N.Sh., Balabieva G.K., Koishybaeva G.S. Distribution of alien fish species in small watrebodies of Balkhash basin
Martemyanov V.I., Borisovskaya E.A. Indices of water-salt metabolism in introduced into Rybinsk waterbody sardelle Clupeonella cultriventris (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) compared to indiginous and marine fish species
Morozova O.V., Borisov M.M. WEB-oriented geoinformation system on alien plant species of the European Russia
Raiskiy A.K. About paedomorphic shaping in Pycnogonida connected with introduction into Arctic basin
Semenchenko V.P., Razlutskiy V.I., Feniova I.Yu. Influence of trophic conditions on biotic interactions under introduction of new speies into communities of Cladocera
Chetyrbotskiy A.N., Zvyagintsev A.Yu., Kafanov A.I. Mathematic modeling and evaluation of bioinvasion state of barnacles on the shelf of Japan
Erdenebat Manchin, Dgebuadze Yu.Yu. Alien species of fishes in Mongolian part of the Selenga River basin
Yakovleva A.V., Yakovlev V.A. Resent fauna and quantitative parameters of the invasive invertebrates in zoobenthos of the upper reaches of Kuybyshev Water Reservoir, Russia

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Naturalization of Elodea canadensis Mich. in Baikal Lake - Kravtsova L.S., Izhboldina L.A., Mekhanikova I.V., Pomazkina G.V., Belykh O.I. - In 20062009 a spatial distribution of Elodea canadensis Mich. in the southern and middle depressions of Baikal Lake was studied. It has been noted that Elodea canadensis naturalized in the lake ecosystem, where it coexists with aboriginal vegetation under its canopy or forms rarefied undergrowth, or separate monomorphic spots. It is established that introduction of Elodea canadensis into Baikal led to reconstruction of the structure of phytocenoses of aboriginal higher water vegetation in several bays of the Maloe Sea. At present in the bay Huzhir-Nugo a phytocenosis with domination of adventive species Elodea canadensis is spread, and in the bay Kurkutskaya the species Myriophyllum spicatum L. A general pattern characteristic for Baikal as well as otherwaterbodies is noted: in the period of recession in elodea development a mass growth of Myriophyllum spicatum is observed. A biota associated with the higher water vegetation and its distribution is studied. It is established that elodea is a place of phytoepiphyton community formation, which is different in structure characteristics from that on aboriginal Baikal vegetation. Low index of specific diversity of Shennon, high concentration of one species domination (Cocconeis placentula var. placentula), and low uniformity evidence to vulnerability of the community and unfavorable conditions of its habitation on Elodea canadensis. Therefore, at formation of thick tangles of Elodea canadensis one can establish pauperization of floristic composition of phytoepiphyton and mass development of representatives of the genus Cocconeis. The changes in the structure organization of phytocenoses have an effect on the abundance of invertebrate animals. Zoophytos Elodea canadensis in quantitative indices differs from population of the bushes of Myriophyllum spicatum and bottom sediments, which is confirmed by the results of data analysis by the method of main components, ANOVA.

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The list of alien species in the ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic - Lusk S., Lusková V., Hanel L. - In this paper, we record the introduction or invasion of 41 non-indigenous fish species into natural ecosystems of the Czech Republic over the past two centuries. Of these, only 12 species have survived to the present day. Fully naturalised species that have established natural populations include Ameirus nebulosus, Carassius auratus gibelio, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Pseurorasbora parva and Neogobius melanostomus. Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis form occasional and locally stable populations. The occurrence of the remaining species (Coregonus maraena, Coregonus peled, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is reliant upon aquaculture, including hand-stripping. The six-year annual average of total production of alien species in the Czech Republic for 20012006 reached 2,054 tonnes. Of these alien species, only C. auratus gibelio has been shown to have a significantly negative impact upon native ichthyofauna. At present, apart from Mylopharyngodon piceus, no further officially sanctioned imports of alien species are under consideration.

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Carassius auratus gibelio the most successful invasive fish in waters of the Czech Republic - Lusková V., Lusk S., Halačka K., Vetešník L. - Carassius auratus gibelio is considered an alien fish species in the hydrographic system of the Czech Republic. Around 1976, this form immigrated from the River Danube into the confluence of the Morava and Dyje rivers and gradually spread over the hydrographic network over the course of the next 15 to 20 years. Helped by man, this species overcame the boundaries between particular drainage areas, expanding its range and colonising suitable habitats. C. a. gibelio has become fully naturalised and has produced numerous stable populations. This is the only non-indigenous fish species in the Czech Republic showing distinct characteristics of an invasive taxon. Initial populations of C. a. gibelio colonising the new area consisted solely of triploid females. The occurrence of males after 1990 started a process of transformation of the originally monosexual female (triploid) population into a mixed population containing both females and males. At present, males are predominantly diploid, with occasional triploid individuals. Females are predominantly triploid and less frequently diploid. Tetraploid individuals are quite rare. At the Morava-Dyje confluence, the population reproduces both gynogenetically and sexually. C. a. gibelio exerts important competitive, as well as destructive, effects upon the indigenous ichthyofauna. Native species of Carassius carassius and Tinca tinca, previously abundant, have vanished from those localities dominated by C. a. gibelio. C. a. gibelio is fished for on hook and line in natural habitats in the Czech Republic, with an annual recorded catch of 2550 tonnes. Annual production in fishponds varies between 15 and 70 tonnes, yet its marketable utilisation is problematic.

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Distribution of alien fish species in small watrebodies of Balkhash basin - Mamilov N.Sh., Balabieva G.K., Koishybaeva G.S. - 36 sampling sites of the Balkhash lake watershed had been investigated in 19982009. Nowadays 11 indigenous and 16 alien species of fishes have been found there. Larger diversity of alien species had been observed in the water bodies with bigger human impact.

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Indices of water-salt metabolism in introduced into Rybinsk waterbody sardelle Clupeonella cultriventris (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) compared to indiginous and marine fish species - Martemyanov V.I., Borisovskaya E.A. - Parameters of water-salt exchange and upper bound of salinity of allocation tyulka naturally correspond to those which are characteristic for freshwater fishes. These results specify probability of freshwater origin tyulka. Installed in Rybinsk reservoir tyulka differs from indigenous species more high level of potassium in plasma, low water content and potassium in muscles, calcium in erythrocytes, magnesium in plasma, erythrocytes and muscular tissue. High levels of sodium in erythrocytes tyulka reflect increased oxygen carrying capacity of blood, testifying about enlarged requirements of this species for oxygen. The content of magnesium in erythrocytes tyulka in 23.7 times is lower, than at indigenous species, specifying lower affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen. It fixed, that sharp influences are very quickly accompanied by essential desalting of blood tyulka, causing the raised vulnerability to unfavorable factors.

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WEB-oriented geoinformation system on alien plant species of the European Russia - Morozova O.V., Borisov M.M. - Developed open geo-information system (GIS) "Alien plant species of the European Russia" was presented, that base is database on species finds. Database includes the information about species nomenclature, morphology, ecology, distribution (initial range and area of invasion), description of invasion features. Spatial data are presented by way of points (finds of species) with geographical coordinates and polygons (administrative districts); Google maps are used as cartographic basis, above which layer formed by cartographic server is putted. Entering of the data about finds is provided directly by Internet. By means of GIS the following problems may be resolved: automate accumulation of information on alien species, alien species monitoring in the whole territory of the European Russia, combination of species find information with information of different environmental factors.

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About paedomorphic shaping in Pycnogonida connected with introduction into Arctic basin - Raiskiy A.K. - Against a background of known previously examples of paedomorphic evolution in different systematic groups of animals and plants, an example of finding of individuals of marine spiders of the genus Achelia, which retain a juvenile feature nonreduced in ontogenesis pincers of chelifores, is considered. It is shown that the Achelia borealis japonica is an initial form of the Achelia borealis s.l., got into northern seas from the Pacific Ocean and formed there two subspecies with paedomorphic features of different development phases: Achelia borealis neotenica and Achelia borealis borealis. High-latitude conditions of the seas of the Arctic basin with desalination of their surface waters and inconstancy of hydrological characteristics is suggested to view as a reason for paedomorphic speciation.

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Influence of trophic conditions on biotic interactions under introduction of new speies into communities of Cladocera - Semenchenko V.P., Razlutskiy V.I., Feniova I.Yu. - We studied the influence of food concentration on success of introduction of alien species into zooplankton communities. Abundance dynamics of the studied species were simulated under different levels of food supply corresponding to oligo- and eutrophic conditions. Computer experiments evidenced that success of species introduction was connected with equilibrium food concentration. Species with less equilibrium food concentration were more successful. Among the studied species more competitive ones were Simocephalus vetulus (large-bodied species) and Ceriodaphnia reticulata (small-bodied species). Indeed, under oligotrophic conditions more successful was Ceriodaphnia reticulata and under eutropnic was Simocephalus vetulus. We suggested that large-bodied species lose competition with small ones in oligotrophic conditions due to their trait to delay at juvenile stages under food depletion. The results of experimental and field studies were analyzed for confirmation of success of Ceriodaphnia in competition with larger cladocerans under oligotrophic conditions.

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Mathematic modeling and evaluation of bioinvasion state of barnacles on the shelf of Japan - Chetyrbotskiy A.N., Zvyagintsev A.Yu., Kafanov A.I. - The results of statistical analysis of spatio-temporal distributions of the barnacles Amphibalanus improvisus, A. amphitrite, A. eburneus in 19352000 on the shelf of Japan are given. It is shown that the places of their initial findings were timed to areas of water of big sea ports and the places of localization of energy complexes. On the basis of the results of statistical analysis of samplings the empirical patterns of barnacles' bioinvasions in the Sea of Japan area of water were revealed. A mathematical model of their bioinvasion was developed and examined. This model takes into account these patterns and suggested parametrical presentations of natural increase, intra- and interspecies competition, sea environment condition, navigation intensity and results of population vital activity, natural settling of individuals. The algorithms of numer dynamics and evaluation of the model adequacy are suggested. A good concordance between model and sampling didtributions has been established.

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Alien species of fishes in Mongolian part of the Selenga River basin - Erdenebat Manchin, Dgebuadze Yu.Yu. - As a result of long-term studies of Mongolian waters of the Selenga River basin the data on alien species of fishes were summarised. Ratio of alien species constitutes 19.2% of the fish fauna of the basin. Main part of aliens appeared in the basin as a result of deliberate introduction and following spreading using the Selenga River as an invasive corridor. Some data on history of invasion and distribution of alien fish species are presented.

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Resent fauna and quantitative parameters of the invasive invertebrates in zoobenthos of the upper reaches of Kuybyshev Water Reservoir, Russia - Yakovleva A.V., Yakovlev V.A. - On the basis of the data for 1998-2008 the review of the invasive zoobenthos species of the upper reaches of the Kuybyshev Water Reservoir is given. In total 30 species are revealed: polychaetes 3, oligochaetes 2, leeches 1, mollusks 5, crustaceans 19 (gammarids 9, corophiums 2, cumaceans and mysids on 3, Galician crayfish Astacus leptodactilus and shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense). Share of all invasive species is equal to 10.8 % of the total zoobenthos species. For the first time for the Kuybyshev Water Reservoir the polychaeta Hypaniola kowalewskii, oligochaeta Potamothrix heuscheri, gastropod mollusk Physella acuta, crustaceans Pterocuma pectinata, Stenocuma cercaroides, Dikerogammarus villosus and Pontogammarus robustoides are specified. Quantitative data of the main groups and separate species of invaders are shown. Reduction in number and biomass in the majority of invasive species except for the mollusk Dreissena bugensis, which number during the examined period increased approximately ten times, is marked.

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