|Laboratories \ Laboratory for Ecological Monitoring of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Regions and Bioindication \ Goals and Tasks|
|Goals and Tasks||Publications||Scientific Staff|
LABORATORY FOR ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT (NPP) REGIONS AND BIOINDICATION
I.N. Ryabov at the Kiev Reservoir
The members of the Lab undertake the studies according to the following directions:
Ecology of organisms and communities.
As a result of the study of ecology and distribution of lichens in urban territories (the city of Moscow) and the territories, polluted by radionuclides (Chernobyl, the South Ural, Semipalatinsk testing area), and also as a result of the study of publications on lichen ecology, a critical analysis was made for the different aspects of lichen use in ecological monitoring of the state of ambient air in the cities and industrial centers and for bioindication of radioactive pollution of the territories of the Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth (two monographs).
For Moscow territory on the basis of original methods, the map 'Evaluation of air pollution according to the data about lichen distribution' was created and included into the Ecological Atlas of Moscow (2000). This map was repeated in school-books (without agreement with the authors), published in the Internet on the site of Mosecomonitoring.
Available data on biodiversity of lichens in Moscow region were summarized. The results of generalization, the 'Species composition of lichenbiota of Moscow region' (Russian and English versions), were published in the Internet on the server of SIEE RAS. This is a list of 355 taxa of lichenized fungi, found in the region territory.
Original data, collected during the study of species composition of epiphytic lichens on the territory of Moscow, divided into 908 squares of 1 õ 1 km, served as a basis for revelation of isotoxic for lichens (and human beings) zones in Moscow.
In 2002 the list 'Species composition of lichenbiota of Mongolia' composed by L.G. Byazrov was printed. In 2003 this list (Russian and English versions) was published on the server of SIEE RAS. It is renewed annually, since both the author and other specialists continue the processing of the materials, collected on the territory of Mongolia, and publications about species composition of some regions of this country appear. At present it contains 984 taxa of lichenized fungi, found on the territory of Mongolia. This WEB-publication assigns the priority of species diversity study in Mongolia to Russian scientists. It evokes a great interest in Russian and foreign colleagues.
An original form of description of lichen species biogeography was developed. This formula is based on comparison of the species locations within its areal with biogeographic areas and ecoregions of land, indicated on the map of ecoregions of the Earth.
Phylogenetic ties and peculiarities of karyology of some representatives of Ethiopian ichthyofauna were studied. Taxonomic status of African climbing perches was specified and a scheme of phylogeny of their relations was suggested.
The comparative analysis of sympatric forms of loaches showed that several from them differed in their karyotypes that, probably, led to their genetic isolation.
It was shown that the problems of distant hybridization were most inherent to the family of Cyprinidae, subfamily of Leuciscinae, characterized by the greatest among lower vertebrates presence of the hybrids of the category "from incident to incident" according to the classification of E. Mayer. Reproduction of the hybrids of the roach Rutilus rutilus and the bream Abramis brama, the typical representatives of this category was studied. It was revealed that gametal pool of the hybrids was presented by three types of viable gametes, differing in their characters and ploidy from parental species.
Biophysics. Radiobiology. Mathematical models in biology. Bioinformatics.
During recent 11 years, monitoring studies were continued on dynamics of radionuclides accumulation in the fishes of different ecological groups and trophic levels, inhabiting waterbodies of various types, located on the territories, polluted by radionuclides as a result of the accident on Chernobyl NPP (the ChNPP zone of 30 km, Bryansk region) and as a result of "Mayak" activity (the rivers Techa, Iset', Tobol, Irtysh).
Despite a long term, past after the accident on ChNPP, specific activity of Cs-137 in fish products remains at a high level and in predatory fish 1.5 - 2 times exceeds maximum permissible level (MPL) (150 Bc/kg w.ì.).
Radioecological monitoring of the main commercial fish species at different sections of the river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob didn't reveal an excess of specific activity of Cs-137 and Sr-90 over MPL, accepted in Russia, for fish products. As a result of monitoring of specific activity of radionuclides in the tissues of different fish species of the river system, a general tendency to lowering of this index was marked during the whole period of works (1995-2006).
The data on influence of radioactive pollution of waterbodies of 30 km zone of Chernobyl NPP on reproductive system of fishes were summarized. It was revealed that general number of injuries of body morphology and gonads correlated positively with the degree of waterbodies pollution by radionuclides. Recently, in most studied fish species a growth of serious anomalies (androgyny, sterilization, total destruction of sexual glands) of reproductive system has been marked. Data analysis for three waterbodies (Cooling Pond of ChNPP, Kiev reservoir, the Teterev River) in recent years revealed an increase of the number of injuries of sexual glands in descendants of 3-5 generations of fishes, undergone a sharp radioactive impact.
It was shown that even after a long time after the ChPNN accident in natural populations of mammals and fishes, inhabiting polluted by radionuclides regions, an increased frequency of aberrant cells was marked.
Comparison of cytogenetic data with the data of immunologic studies allows assertion of the following: specific activities of Cs-137, marked in small mammals are not the main reason of the increase in frequencies of aberrant cells. The basic factor of increasing of the frequencies of aberrant cells is the lowering of immune potency of individuals, inhabiting polluted territories, that marginally is confirmed by an increase of the frequencies of aberrant cells in the youngest and eldest age groups of animals (it is known that in these periods of life the immune system functions not in full measure). The cited facts suggest the adverse state of natural populations inhabiting the regions polluted by radionuclides.
Evaluation of the quality of the habitat of the fishes of the Irtysh basin has allowed to conclude that a marked mutagenic influence of chemical and radioactive pollution of water in studied rivers (Techa, Iset', Tobol, Irtysh) on fish genome is absent excluding the water taken from the river Iset'.