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Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology

2003, Issue 3


CONTENTS


Anikin V.V. Ecologo-biotopical distribution of casebearers (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) in different types of Russian landscapes 209
Zavialov E.V., Shlyakhtin G.V., Tabachishin V.G., Yakushev N.N., Lobachov Yu.Yu., Shapovalova I.B. Genesis of natural conditions and basic trends in the modern dynamics of animal habitats in the north of the Lower Volga region. Report VI. Bird distribution under the natural factor dynamics of the environment (continuation) 216
Monichev .Y., Afonin V.M., Rozenberg G.S., Gelashvili D.B. Forecasting the human population in terms of a model of birth and death rate dynamics 232
Rybakova N., Meissner B., Lukjanov S.B., Ermakov O.A., Titov S.B. Small pika (Ochotona pusilla pusilla Pallas, 1769) as an indicator of the modern state of the steppe Zavolzhie ecosystems 239
Ryurikov G.B., Surov A.V., Tikhonov I.A. Eversmann hamster in the Saratov Zavolzhie: its ecology and behavior in the nature 251
Savarin A.A. Craniological peculiarities of Eastern hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) in the Byelorussian Polesye as a territory under global technogenic influences 259
Trofimova L.S., Oparina O.S., Oparin M.L. Vegetative cloak of potential bustard nesting sites in the Saratov region 266
Halitov N.G., Ryahovsky A.V. Ecological evaluation of the plant-growing production quality in the South Ural steppe zone 278
KhudyakovG.I. Geoecological problems of the Balakovo nuclear power station (in connection with the possible commissioning of the second phase of the 5th and 6th power blocks) 285
Shurganova G.V., Cherepennikov V.V., Artel'nyi E.V. Dynamics of the spatial distribution of the zooplankton communities in the Cheboksary water reservoir 297
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Karmyshev Yu.V., Pokusa R.V. Role of near-water birds in the spreading of Sand lizard on the Sea of Azov islands 305
Tabachishin V.G., Zavialov E.V. Spatial distribution and trends in the number of the Spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in the environs of the Novorossiysk City 307
BOOK REVIEW
Bakiev A.G. Fauna of the Tatarstan Rebublik: Amphibians and Reptiles. Research Methods (by A.V.Pavlov and R.I.Zamaletdinov) 309
Gelashvili D.B. Quantitative Hydroecology: System Identification Methods (by V.K. Shitikov, G.S. Rosenberg, T.D. Zinchenko) 312


2003, Issue 3


Ecologo-biotopical distribution of casebearers (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) in different types of Russian landscapes. Anikin V.V. The ecological distribution of 259 casebearer species of the main faunistic complexes from the most typical biotopes located in different natural zones of Russia was analyzed. Noted as the northern landscape types shade into the southern ones, the portion of the mesophilous species decreases, that of the xerophilous ones increases and reaches its maximum in the desert landscapes while the group of the meso-xerophilous species seems indifferent to the landscape type. The portion of ecological groups also changes in southward movement, namely, the phyllophagous predominant on the north are replaced by the carpophagous with increasing their trophic specialization.

Key words: Microlepidoptera, Coleophoridae, ecology, Russia.

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Genesis of natural conditions and basic trends in the modern dynamics of animal habitats in the north of the Lower Volga region. Report VI. Bird distribution under the natural factor dynamics of the environment. Zavialov E.V., Shlyakhtin G.V., Tabachishin V.G., Yakushev N.N., Lobachov Yu.Yu., Shapovalova I.B. Problems of the bird distribution dynamics in the north of the Lower Volga region under the influence of natural environmental factors and in the course of evolutionally-caused historical processes are discussed. Several groups of species with different types of the habitat dynamics have been resolved. The mediated influence of helioclimatic cycles on the ecological conditions of natural biotopes, long-term level mode oscillations of the water reservoirs in the region, the natural dynamics of the number of bird asylum suppliers are considered as the principal factors affecting the bird distribution.

Key words: birds, habitat dynamics, abiotic factors, natural cycles, relics, Lower Volga region.

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Forecasting the human population in terms of a model of birth and death rate dynamics. Monichev .Y., Afonin V.M., Rozenberg G.S., Gelashvili D.B. A model of the human population dynamics is offered. It features an analytical expression for the birth and death rates as a function of the population number. The population density is treated as the master factor in demographic processes.

Key words: birth rate, death rate, competition, cooperation, population number, population density, demographic forecast.

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Small pika (Ochotona pusilla pusilla Pallas, 1769) as an indicator of the modern state of the steppe Zavolzhie ecosystems. Rybakova N., Meissner B., Lukjanov S.B., Ermakov O.A., Titov S.B. The main natural and anthropogenic ecosystems of the steppe Zavolzhie were analyzed in terms of a map plotted by means of interpreting cosmic photographs. The Ochotona pusilla pusilla which is a stenobiontic species of open steppe spaces with bush brushwood was chosen as a bioindicator. This species was found to have been preserved mainly in bushed narrow gullies on the Common Syrt slopes and, to a lesser extent, on low-lying placornic surfaces of the Syrtovaya plain of the Zavolzhie. The elemental transfer of agricultural lands to fallow ones, which occurred mainly on low-lying placornic surfaces and foot plots of the Common Syrt during the last 5 25 years, seems to have had no significant effect on the Ochotona pusilla pusilla habitat expansion; the absence of its settlements on low-lying plots is explained by a rarity of the steppe bush tracts in fallow lands and narrow gullies and their being remote from the main bushes populated by the Ochotona pusilla pusilla on the slopes of the Common Syrt.

Key words: cosmic photographs, geoinformation systems, Small pika, Ochotona pusilla pusilla, bioindicator, bush steppes, steppe Zavolzhie.

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Eversmann hamster in the Saratov Zavolzhie: its ecology and behavior in the nature. Ryurikov G.B., Surov A.V., Tikhonov I.A. The biotopic distribution and space expoitation by the Eversman hamster (Allocricetulus eversmanni) were studied in two districts of the Saratov region during 3 summer seasons (2000 2002). We used snap and living traps as well as radiotelemetry to examine the budget of activity, patterns of burrows use etc. This species can be found in different types of biotops but the highest abundance is reached in new fallow lands after grain (1 3 years) and melon fields (1 year) where the population density may be up to 10 ind./ha. The home ranges of adult females do not overlap and are smaller than those of adult males. The home ranges of adult males overlap significantly and cover several female home ranges each. So, the distribution of Eversmann hamster in this region is much limited by the presence of new fallow lands providing it with a sufficient number of available shelters and food supply. With the ageing of the fallows or after their re-ploughing the abundance decreases. We suggest that the space-ethological structure of Eversmann hamster allows certain distances between the members of the community to be kept, rather effective reproduction to be provided, and a low but stable abundance in the optimal biotops to be maintained.

Key words: Eversmann hamster, ecology, biotopic distribution, radiotelemetry, home range.

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Craniological peculiarities of Eastern hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) in the Byelorussian Polesye as a territory under global technogenic influences. Savarin A.A. A series (n = 170) of skulls of Erinaceus concolor living in the south-eastern part of Byelorussia has been examined. The following peculiarities have been discovered: a big size of the neurocranium and a large height of the skull. The indicated anomalies of the skull of E. concolor inhabiting the Byelorussian Polesye give evidence of chronic diseases that affect the central nervous system and cause in-skull hypertension. Any comparison of the data in terms of metric and phenetic features of E. concolor should be carried out along with discovering the physiological condition within this population and allowing for the degree of the pathological processes and their dynamics.

Key words: Erinaceus concolor, Byelorussian Polesye, population, craniometry, anomaly, pathology.

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Vegetative cloak of potential bustard nesting sites in the Saratov region. TrofimovaL.S., Oparina O.S., Oparin M.L. The results of our complex inspection of the vegetative cloak of some potential places of Great bustard (Otis tarda L., 1758) nesting in the Saratov region (Russia) are presented. Seven sites were fully described in geobotanic terms: a fallow land, two (spring and winter) wheat fields, three sites of former fields of different ages, and a virgin site with needle grass (Stipa pennata) vegetation. The floristic structure, projective covering, height, and vertical structure of the grass on some fixed transects are reported for each site. The inspection was carried out in two stages, namely, the beginning and middle of the summer of 1999. As a result of our complex estimation of vegetation for raising Great bustard nestlings, fallows, winter and spring wheat fields, and four-year-old neglected fields with complex vegetation seem the most suitable places for nesting.

Key words: agrocenose, vegetation, steppe, Great bustard, site, Saratov region, Russia.

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Ecological evaluation of the plant-growing production quality in the South Ural steppe zone. Halitov N.G., Ryahovsky A.V. The ecological quality of grain and straw of some cereals grown at different levels of their mineral nutrition in the South Ural steppe zone was evaluated. The cereals under study were regularly sampled and analyzed for heavy metals. The metal consumption per unit of the main production (with due attention to the side one) has been calculated.

Key words: heavy metals, nitrate, nitrite, ecotoxicants, grain, straw, fertilizer.

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Geoecological problems of the Balakovo nuclear power station (in connection with the possible commissioning of the second phase of the 5th and 6th power blocks). KhudyakovG.I. The principal results of the public ecologo-geographical expertise of the 4th energy power block of the Balakovo station are fully presented for the first time. The author forewarns the society of potential dangerous geoecological conditions on the territory of the Balakovo station and forecasts their worsening in case of commissioning of the second phase of power blocks. Recommendations are given for improving the geoecological conditions of the Balakovo station.

Key words: Balakovo nuclear power station, expertise, monitoring, induced seismic activity, heat pollution, vapour mist, radionuclides.

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Dynamics of the spatial distribution of the zooplankton communities in the Cheboksary water reservoir. Shurganova G.V., Cherepennikov V.V., Artel'nyi E.V. On the basis of our analysis of long-term data on the population of zooplankton species in the Cheboksary water reservoir, separate zooplankton communities were revealed, and the dynamics of their spatial distribution was obtained. For the first time the boundaries of the zooplankton communities were determined in terms of pairwise comparison of the specific structure and density of separate species of the zooplankton in a number of samples taken by 18 stationary stations placed around all the water basin. This has allowed us to find a new zooplanktocenosis in the transitional part of the water basin. Steady trends in the spatial distribution changes of the zooplankton communities at the initial stages of exogenous succession and during relative stabilization of the planktonic communities were revealed.

Key words: zooplankton communities, spatial distribution, exogenous succession, Cheboksary water basin.

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Role of near-water birds in the spreading of Sand lizard on the Sea of Azov islands. Karmyshev Yu.V., Pokusa R.V. Our examination of some small islands along the north-western shore of the Sea of Azov (the Zaporozhie region, Ukraine) has revealed the presence of Sand lizard (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758) in the food allowance of Gray heron (Ardea cinerea Linnaeus, 1758) during feeding chicks. A part of living lizards was found to be lost or escape from nests. The presence of vegetation on the islands allows these lizards to survive, and a separate habitat has appeared. The role of herons in settling of the Sea of Azov islands with reptiles is shown.

Key words: Sand lizard, Lacerta agilis, Gray heron, Ardea cinerea, Sea of Azov, Ukraine.

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Spatial distribution and trends in the number of the Spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in the environs of the Novorossiysk City. Tabachishin V.G., Zavialov E.V. The state of the Testudo graeca population in the Wide Gorge was examined in 2001-2002. A trend in the dynamics of several quantitative indices has been revealed, which makes it necessary to conduct a comprehensive study of the population status with the aim to design effective measures for the preservation of the species.

Key words: Spur-thighed tortoise, Testudo graeca, number, Wide Gorge, Krasnodar region.

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 2002-. Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology 
 2002-. Group of Bioinformatics and Modeling Biological Processes IPEE RAS