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Povolzhskiy Journal of Ecology

2012, Issue 3


CONTENTS


Genkal S. I. On the morphology, taxonomy, ecology and distribution of Cyclotella vorticosa (Bacillariophyta)243
Kulakov D. V., Krylov A. V., Papchenkov V. G, and Tsvetkov A. I. Influence of the water level regime and aquatic bird colony size on the intertidal zone zooplankton in the Rybinsk reservoir252
Nazarova A. F., Guriev I. P., Mashurov A. M., and Orlov V. N. Population structure, polymorphism and immunophylogenesis of 10 horse breeds of Europe and Asia262
Okulova N. M., Kalinkina E. V., Mironova T. A., Sapelnikov S. F., Yegorov S. V., Majorova A. D., Vlasov A. A., and Mutnykh E. S. On the ecology of the field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pall.) in the forest-steppe Chernozem region. III. Population composition and reproduction268
Oparin M. L., Oparina O. S., Kondratenkov I. A., Mamayev A. B., and Piskunov V. V. Factors causing the long-term dynamics of the numbers of Trans-Volga bustard population (Otis tarda L.)278
Podshivalina V. N. Holopedium gibberum Zaddach (Crustacea, Cladocera) biology and spreading features on the Nizmennoe Trans-Volga region in the Southern Taiga zone295
Sedalischev V. T. and Odnokurtsev V. A. On the ecology of American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) in Southern Yakutia302
Semenova I. N., Ilbulova G. R, and Sujundukov J. T. Functional activity of microbial communities of chernozems of the Bashkirian Trans-Ural region under technogenic pollution311
Stepanova N. Yu., khmetshina . D., and Latypova V. Z. Test-organism sensitivity comparison in toxicological evaluation of bottom sediments polluted with oil of various origin319
Tilaki Ghasem Ali Dianati, Behtari Behzad, Alizadeh Mohammad Ali, and Jafari Ali Ashraf Effect of seed priming on the germination, seedling emergence, yield and quality of forage production in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb)326
Khitsova L. N, Silina A. E., and Melashenko M. V. Taxonomic composition and trophic structure of the bottom zoocenoses of inundated reservoirs in beaver habitats in the Usman Pine forest336
Yakoblev V. A., Akhmetzianova N. Sh., and Yakonleva A. V. Macroinvertebrate communities in different types of shallow water biotopes of the Volzhsk reach of the Kuybyshev water reservoir (Russia)347
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Bukharin O. V., Nemtsev N. V., and Yatsenko-Stepanova T. N. Associative symbiosis of hydrobionts and its significance in evaluation of ecological status of reservoirs356


2012, Issue 3


On the morphology, taxonomy, ecology and distribution of Cyclotella vorticosa (Bacillariophyta). Genkal S. I. The valve morphology of Cyclotella vorticosa is considered on the basis of our phytoplankton studies on several reservoirs in the North-Western Russia and Western Siberia. The species is shown to have a wide variability of diagnostic features (valve diameter, the number of stria per 10 μm, the number and location of central and marginal fultoportula and rimoportula, the number and location of spines and granules), a wider habitat, and to develop in oligotrophicmesotrophic waterbodies during the spring, summer and autumn periods. Similarities and distinctions between morphologically similar species and the conspecificity of C. vorticosa and . schumannii are shown. On the basis of our own and literature data, an extended diagnosis of . schumannii is presented, and C. vorticosa is referred to the synonymy of the latter.

Key words: phytoplankton, Bacillariophyta, Cyclotella vorticosa, Cyclotella schumannii, morphology, ecology, distribution.

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Influence of the water level regime and aquatic bird colony size on the intertidal zone zooplankton in the Rybinsk reservoir. Kulakov D. V., Krylov A. V., Papchenkov V. G, and Tsvetkov A. I. It is shown that the water temperature decreases and the littoral zone overgrowing reduces when abrupt rising of the water level in the reservoir. In zooplankton, the variety degree of Crustacea decreases, the trophic coefficient increases, the number of Rotifera species rises in the composition of dominants, the fraction of Copepoda increases and that of Cladocera decreases in the total biomass. Any water level increase also leads to drowning of aquatic bird nests and to reduction of the numbers of the colony. As a result, in comparison with the period when the numbers of the colony was higher, the quantity of aquatic bird vital activity products inflowing into water reduces, which entails a decrease in both the zooplankton biomass and the magnification ratio of the zooplankton numbers and biomass in the nesting zone against a background site.

Key words: reservoir, littoral zone, water level, aquatic birds, zooplankton.

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Population structure, polymorphism and immunophylogenesis of 10 horse breeds of Europe and Asia. Nazarova A. F., Guriev I. P., Mashurov A. M., and Orlov V. N. 10 horse breeds cultivated in Europe and Asia were examined on the gene frequencies of the blood groups of loci A, D, and K. Of the Asiatic breeds, two groups of Yakut horses, the Kazakh breed Djebe, and a Mongolian breed were studied. Genetic distances of these breeds from each other were calculated. The genetic distance between the Kazakh breed Djebe and the Mongolian breed was lowest, and that between was between the Achaltekin and Yakut western breeds was highest. Plotting a relationship dendrogram by genetic distances have shown that all the European horse breeds, namely, the Arabic, Russian shire, Thorough-bred, Russian trotter, and Don horse are in one big cluster, while the Asiatic breeds, namely, the two Yakutian breeds, Kazakh breed Djebe, and Mongol breed constitute another cluster.

Key words: horse breeds, blood group frequencies, genetic distances, relationship dendrogram.

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On the ecology of the field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pall.) in the forest-steppe Chernozem region. III. Population composition and reproduction. Okulova N. M., Kalinkina E. V., Mironova T. A., Sapelnikov S. F., Yegorov S. V., Majorova A. D., Vlasov A. A., and Mutnykh E. S. Males prevail in the populations of Apodemus agrarius in the Central Chernozem region. During the abundance peaks the portion of females among overwintering animals is minimum and that among this-year ones is maximum. Reproduction regulation is mainly manifested itself in delayed maturation of a part of the overwintering animals for 1 or 2 months, especially during the recession following the peak year.

Key words: field mouse, sexual structure, litter size, abundance dynamics.

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Factors causing the long-term dynamics of the numbers of Trans-Volga bustard population (Otis tarda L.). Oparin M. L., Oparina O. S., Kondratenkov I. A., Mamayev A. B., and Piskunov V. V. The results of our survey of bustards in the southern part of the Saratov Trans-Volga region over the area of 12,000 thousand sq. km for 1990 2010 are presented, analysis of the abundance dynamics was done, and factors causing it were revealed. Data on the distribution of bustards over their biotopes in the period of premigratory roaming were studied, and the demographic and spatial structure of the population was analyzed.

Key words: Otis tarda, abundance dynamics, abundance dynamics factors, demographic structure, spatial structure.

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Holopedium gibberum Zaddach (Crustacea, Cladocera) biology and spreading features on the Nizmennoe Trans-Volga region in the Southern Taiga zone. Podshivalina V. N. The zooplankton fauna in 27 lakes of the Southern Taiga zone on the Nizmennoe Trans-Volga region was analyzed. Holopedium gibberum Zaddach inhabited six of them only. Studying these lakes let us get data on the H. gibberum spreading and life cycle features on the southern edge of its natural habitat. Aeolian originated senescent lakes are the most attractive places for this species in the mentioned zone. This may be probably caused by water salinity decreasing and getting secondary oligotrophic features during the lake ageing. The species is present in the zooplankton communities in April-May in extremely shallow well-warmed lakes and during the whole vegetation season in comparatively deeper ones.

Key words: Holopedium gibberum, zooplankton, species habitat, ageing lakes.

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On the ecology of American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) in Southern Yakutia. Sedalischev V. T. and Odnokurtsev V. A. The ecology of American mink was studied in the Aldan and Olekma river basins from 1981 to 2010. The minks acclimatized in Southern Yakutia are close, by body size, to the individuals in the Sakhalin Island and are somewhat smaller than the minks in Altai, Bashkortostan, and Tatarstan. Craniometric indicators of the Souternh Yakutian minks are close to the northeastern, Altai and Bashkortostan populations but are somewhat inferior to the Tatarian ones. Their breeding behavior begins with the third decade of March, and reproduction continues until the end of the first decade of April. The terms of puping are stretched to the end of May. The number of pups in a litter is 4 or 5. The basis of winter forage is fish (91.5%). In the spring and summer, the range of forage is expanded. Parasitism of 3 helminthic species belonging to the class of non-nematode, namely, Capillaria putorii (Rudolphi, 1819), Soboliphyme baturini Petrow, 1930, Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), was revealed in minks. The population density of minks in the southern Yakutia varies widely from 0.13 to 1.23 individual per 1 km of coastline.

Key words: American mink, density, coastline, Yakutia.

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Functional activity of microbial communities of chernozems of the Bashkirian Trans-Ural region under technogenic pollution. Semenova I. N., Ilbulova G. R, and Sujundukov J. T. The functional activity of chernozems exposed to environmental contamination by the mining industry enterprises was evaluated by multisubstrate testing. A distinction of the functional soil diversity of territories at different distances from the emission source was revealed. When soil is polluted with heavy metals, the range and intensity of consumption of various substrates by microbial communities vary. The most contaminated soils were characterized by the lowest Shannon diversity index.

Key words: multisubstrate test, functional activity, emission source.

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Test-organism sensitivity comparison in toxicological evaluation of bottom sediments polluted with oil of various origin. Stepanova N. Yu., khmetshina . D., and Latypova V. Z. The results of our model experiments with using an equal amount of the oil from the New-Suksinsky deposit (Republic Tatarstan) and the Las-Egansky deposit (Tyumen region) demonstrate a different toxicological response of our test organisms (Paramecium caudatum, Ceriodaphnia affinis, Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, and Heterocypris incongruens). The toxicity of the sediments polluted with the oil of the New-Suksinsky origin was higher by 24 77% in comparison with that from the Las-Egansky deposit by the presence of sulphurous substances. The range of our test organisms according to their sensitivity is: Ceriodaphnia affinis (0.16 0.70 g/kg) > aramecium caudatum (0.17 0.58 g/kg) > Hyalella azteca (0.50 1.10 g/kg) > Daphnia magna (1.30 2.40 g/kg) > shell crayfish Heterocypris incongruens (> 20.5 g/kg).

Key words: sediments, mineral oil, toxicological evaluation, Paramecium caudatum, Ceriodaphnia affinis, Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Heterocypris incongruens.

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Effect of seed priming on the germination, seedling emergence, yield and quality of forage production in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb). Tilaki Ghasem Ali Dianati, Behtari Behzad, Alizadeh Mohammad Ali, and Jafari Ali Ashraf This study evaluated the effect of priming on germination, emergence, yield and quality of Festuca arundinacea in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Previous priming studies have evaluated only germination and seedling emergence for fescue but priming treatment effects on forage quality have not been assessed. The Seeds were treated by hydropriming (distiller water) and osmopriming in polyethylene glycol 6000(PEG) and KNO3 solution for 1, 3 and 6 day with osmotic potential 1.5 and 2.2 MPa. The results from germination percentage test in laboratory showed that with osmotic priming by PEG 1.5 for 6 day germination was significantly higher than with the control (p ≤ 0.05), while, in greenhouse conditions, PEG 2.2 MPa for 1 day increased the seedling emergence (76.7%) compared to control (42.5%). Primed seeds also had significantly higher fresh weights than the seeds by other treatment and the control. The maximum digestibility percentage of dry matter and crude protein percentage of forage was recorded in PEG 1.5 MPa for 6 day that which exhibited significant difference with untreated seeds. The present study showed that priming enhanced the performance of germination the parameters of emergence and the quality in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The results suggest that, the principle of management and decision about efficacy of priming is not suitable to be assessed from absolute measures of laboratory performance.

Key words: hydropriming, osmopriming, Festuca arundinacea, forage quality, dry matter digestibility, crude protein.

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Taxonomic composition and trophic structure of the bottom zoocenoses of inundated reservoirs in beaver habitats in the Usman Pine forest. Khitsova L. N, Silina A. E., and Melashenko M. V. The taxonomic composition and trophic structure of the macro-zoobenthos in some inundated beaver habitats (Usman Pine forest, Voronezh region) were studied. 172 species of ground invertebrates belonging to 4 types, 8 classes, 21 orders, 60 families, and 121 genera were revealed. The majority of communities have a completed five-level trophic structure including a rich complex of large supreme predators (dragonflies, bugs, and bloodsuckers). In the beaver influence zones there exists an increased saturation with guilds on the water edge. A saprobiologic analysis of benthos species was carried out.

Key words: beaver habitat, macrozoobenthos, trophic structure, bottom community, water quality.

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Macroinvertebrate communities in different types of shallow water biotopes of the Volzhsk reach of the Kuybyshev water reservoir (Russia). Yakoblev V. A., Akhmetzianova N. Sh., and Yakonleva A. V. On the basis of the results of our 2002 2003 study of the condition of macroinvertebrate communities in shallow shore areas of the Volzhsk reach of the Kuybyshev Water Reservoir it is shown that the major factors influencing their structure and quantity parameters are the presence of macrophyte thickets, the degree of susceptibility to the negative influence of wind and waves. A qualitatively and quantitatively rich phytophilous invertebrate community, or zoophytes, including the following ecological groups: zoobenthos, zooperiphyton, zoonectobenthos, zooneyston, and miners are formed in the most widespread semisubmerged Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis tickets. The most abundant inhabitants of thickets are Chironomini chironomid larvae and gastropod mollusks. The invertebrate communities in open (without thickets) coastal shore areas, especially those subjected to the influence of wind and waves, are distinguished by a comparatively low abundance of invertebrates. The role of invasive species (Lithoglyphus naticoides and Monodacna colorata mollusks, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes amphipods) increases.

Key words: invertebrates, zoophytos, shallow shore areas, Kuybyshev Water Reservoir.

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Associative symbiosis of hydrobionts and its significance in evaluation of ecological status of reservoirs. Bukharin O. V., Nemtseva N. V., and Yatsenko-Stepanova T. N. The algoflora of lentic reservoirs in the Orenburg region was studies. The community of hydrobionts is considered from the positions of associative symbiosis, which includes the macropartner (the host), stable dominant and minor associative components. As a result, the structure degree of the algocommunity was determined and the functional loading of its symbionts was evaluated. The use of such an approach has allowed to revealing a group of informative biotic parameters, which, together with abiotic factors, have appeared to be suitable for assessment of the trophic properties of lentic reservoirs, and, as a consequence, for estimation of the ecological status of reservoirs.

Key words: algoflora, symbiosis, natural reservoirs.

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