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GROUP FOR BIOINFORMATICS AND MODELING BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
»сследование эволюции живой природы с помощью средств информатики
RAPD - PCR spectrums of DNA for
The example of cosmic image of the territory of the Visimskiy Reserve and guard zone made from the satellite Landsat MSS.
Functional scheme of information flows under model studies of biosystems structure.
Complex approach developed by us to the study of biosystems of different levels of organization, based on the methodology of multiple analysis of systemic parameters in three interrelated research directions - population genetics, ecology of populations and ecology of communities, - allowed the creation of adequate information models of these systems, the description in formalized manner of the patterns of their functioning; the revelation of the main mechanisms of genetic variability in populations; the evaluation of ecological meaning of revealed patterns in chorologic structure of populations and dynamics of diversity in populations. A statement was substantiated by us that only on the basis of complex ecological-genetical studies, embracing different levels of organization of biosystems, with the help of multiple comparison of parameters and with application of corresponding computer programs, the adequate enough models for the analysis and prognosis of biological processes could be created.
Undertaken by us studies of the patterns of intra- and inter-population genetic variability allowed the approach to understanding of the mechanisms of formation of genetic and gene diversity of bisexual and one-sexual animal species. It was shown that genetic variation of the studied by us populations of vertebrate animals was determined by evolutionary history, origin, level of inbreeding, effective number, areal square and distribution type of individuals in different parts inside the areal, environmental conditions, effective number of gene migration, and mutations of mini- and microsatellite instable locuses of DNA. It was determined that a high level of heterozygosity and gene diversity, one of the most important factors of stability in populations, was maintained by a complex of specific mechanisms.
In formation models, methods, algorithms and programs developed by us on the basis of genomic labeling can be a theoretic basis of the studies of genetic variability in eukaryotic organisms: plants, invertebrates and vertebrate animals, including Primates and a man.
On the basis of the study of chorologic structure of populations with application of synchronic space and ground-based measurements it was shown by us that the adaptive character of the structure provided mainly by species peculiarities of feeding, common features of species-specific habitats and a degree of attachment to them, be selective-group and individual ways of resources use, by aggregate organization and variability of their spatial distribution, by interseasonal repeating directions and intraseasonal stereotype ways of their migrations.
It was shown that demographic approach with the use of decomposition principle of break-up of the populations into structural constituents was an effective way of the study of compound systems. Structural characteristics of plant and animal communities, obtained with the help of systemic parameters, allowed the revelation of the peculiarities of the formation of dynamics and static features of biocenoses depending on biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors.
Information models, methods of diversity evaluation, databases and information system developed by us create a theoretical basis for solution of many practically important questions: systematics and phylogeny, conservation of rare and endangered animal species and habitats, creation of information systems and databases with the purpose of analysis and prognosis of biological resources dynamics and biodiversity at the local, regional and federal levels.
Members of the group together with other Institutes of the RAS and departments of different Ministries (Education and Sciences, Natural resources and Agricultural) have created the pilot versions of the basic WEB-oriented information systems, which are actively used by many users in the global net of Internet.
WEB-oriented information system and DB on diversity of vertebrate animals of Russia includes species and subspecies of 295 freshwater fishes, 29 amphibians, 84 reptiles, 739 birds and 310 mammals (URL: http://www.sevin.ru/vertebrates/). The given system was developed by members of the SIEE RAS, ZIN RAS, Zoological Museum of the MSU under financial support of Minpromnauka of the RF and the Program of Presidium of the RAS "Biodiversity" in 2003-2006.
Information-retrieval system and DB on the rare and endangered species of the Russian Federation consists of two parts: "The Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (animals)" Ц 434 species and "The Red Data Book of RSFSR (plants)" Ц 533 species (URL: http://www.sevin.ru/redbooksevin/). Information system includes electronic versions of species outlines of organisms, presented in the latest issues of considered books. One of the important peculiarities of the system compared to original version is the presence of full-scale context search. Information-retrieval system was developed under financial support of the Ministry for Nature Resources of Russia in 2002.
Multilingual version of WEB-oriented information-retrieval system (IRS) on fauna and flora of protected territories includes integrated database of organisms, protected at present in reserved territories of Russia. Russian-English version of the system is realized by the example of fish-shaped and fishes (321 specie), amphibians (26) and reptiles (56), birds (696), mammals (254), anthocerotes and Hepatica (328), mosses (883), lichens (2015) and vascular plants (7920 species). IRS was developed in 2002-2003 under financial support of Minpromnauka (2003-2004), grants of Fish and Wildlife service, USA (2205-2006, an English version of the system) and the Program of Basic Research of the Presidium of the RAS "Biodiversity and dynamics of gene pools" (2006).
WEB-portal of the program "Fundamental basics of management of biological resources" of the Department of Biological Sciences of the RAS, developed in 2003-2005, includes the results of basic studies made by executives. In the WEB-portal the materials, prepared by 30ty Institutes and Scientific Regional Centers are presented.
Corporative WEB-portal on genetic and biologic collections (URL: http://www.sevin.ru/collections/) of the Russian Federation structurally unites centralized meta- and real data on genetic and biological collections of Russia, existing in different organizations of Ministries and Departments of the RF. WEB-portal integrates distributed WEB-sites (G.K.Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms of the RAS, Institute of Cytology of the RAS, Botanical Gardens of Petrozavodsk State University, V.L.Komarov Botanical Institute of the RAS, A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the RAS). Current version of the WEB-portal includes seven thematic parts: Collections of microorganisms, Collections of cell cultures, Herbarium collections, Botanical collections, integration with the portal of "Living collections of plants and animals of the Reserves of the RF", integration with the portal "The Red Data Book". The quickest "computerization" of collections and their integration into entire information net will allow an active use of the data about genetic resources concentrated in them for development of Russian biology and biotechnology.
In Russia one of the first steps on the way of creation of publicly available Internet-resources on the problems of invasions is the development of the problem-oriented portal "Alien species on the territory of Russia" in the domain sevin.ru (SIEE RAS). The main goals and tasks of the Internet-portal include: information of people, legislative authorities and scientific society about the problems of invasions of alien organisms; coordination of activity of different specialists and organizations within one of the scientific centers on the study of invasions; creation of integrated information field on the problem of invasions of alien species on the territory and water area of Russia.