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Экологическая безопасность и инвазии чужеродных организмов

Environmental safety and invasions of alien species

Сборник материалов круглого стола
в рамках Всероссийской конференции по экологической безопасности
(4-5 июня 2002 г.)

Научный редактор Ижевский С.С.

Москва 2002

Biological invasions (introduction, establishment and dispersal) of alien species from various groups of organisms outside their primary natural home range is becoming a global phenomenon. Invasive species often represent biological pollutants and can threaten the environmental safety of our country. Their establishment and wide spread involves undesirable economical, social, and environmental consequences and biodiversity decrease.

The importance of the problem is illustrated by such examples as colorado potato beetle, Amur sleeper (rotan), weeds of Ambrosia spp., Cuscuta spp., golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), phytopathogenic fungus phomopsis of the sunflower (Diaporthe helianthi), zebra mussel, comb jelly. The area occupied by the colorado potato beetle has reached 3 million hectares, that is 12,000 times more than 30 years ago. The allergic weed ambrosia has already covered 6 million hectares. The invasion of comb jelly into the Black and Caspian Seas has brought about a significant reduction in fish catches.

A number of dangerous aliens are approaching the Russian border at present. Among them are western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera), which has already occupied 13 European countries for 10 years including even the Ukraine, and dangerous North American species of insects-pests of greenhouse and decorative plants etc. as well as many alien plants and phytopathogenic fungi.

New ways of invasions of dangerous aliens are constantly arising. They are brought to Russia in threatening amounts with imported agricultural and flower products, decorative shrubs and trees, and ballast waters.

Inefficient sanitary control of imported plants and animals transferred across the state borders promotes further widening of invasion flows. Some of the imported products contain the invasive species in the hidden form. Moreover the specific situation in Russia is further complicated by large isolated territories with potential invasive species which are capable to disperse outside.

Cases of concealing the information on the transfer and establishment of alien harmful organisms, including quarantine species, in the certain regions and greenhouses are becoming more and more common.

The Plant Quarantine Service of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation in its modern state is not able to cope with invasions of alien herbivorous organisms into Russia and needs a serious reformation.

The phytosanitary legislation (in particular, the Plant Quarantine Law) often contradicts with other national legislative acts (e.g. The Natural Environment Law) and the international legislative provisions signed by Russia.

Besides, there is no united organization which could combine efforts of all interested institutions dealing with the invasion problem.

The problem of the invasion of alien species in the Russian Federation is under the observation of a great number of various official departments (Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Nature Resources, State Committee for Fisheries of the Russian Federation), research and development organizations (A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Papanin Institute of Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk Marine Biological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanograpfy, Research Institute of the Azov sea Fishery, The Main Botanical Garden Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Institute for Plant Quarantine, Russian Institute of Phytopatology etc.), which are trying to solve only narrow specific aspects of the global problem, often involving only one group of organisms (fishes, mammals, insects, phytopathogenic microorganisms, nematodes, plants, etc.).

Nonetheless, many other countries pay much more attention to the invasion problem. There exist numerous national programs and projects, so that the international collaboration is widening. For example, the Global Invasive Species Program is realized under the auspices of authoritative international organizations (including CABI, IUCN, UNEP). Moreover, the invasion problem is significantly supported by the state financial resources.

The aim of the meeting was to exchange the information on the invasion problem, to coordinate mutual activities, and to discuss the necessity and possibility of establishing the united national center on the invasion problem in the Russian Federation.

This book includes the presentations delivered at the Round Table. They were devoted both to various groups of invasion organisms, including insects, fungi, plants, and to different aspects of the problem. Some of them are given below.

  • problems are connecting with invasions of certain groups of organisms.
  • economic, biocenological, and socially-political damage from invasive species.
  • forecast and prevention of invasions.
  • possible ways to reduce the detrimental consequences of invasions
  • databases on invasive species
  • information support
  • legislative aspects

The Round Table included 52 representatives from 15 various official departments, research and development institutes, and higher educational institutions.

This Round Table was organized by the Deputy Director of the Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Yury Yulianovich Dgebuadze and the Head of Department of Entomology & Biology Control of the Russian Institute for Plant Quarantine, Agricultural Ministry of the Russian Federation, Dr. Sergey Sergeevich Izhevskii.




принятая на заседании Круглого стола по проблеме Экологическая безопасность и инвазии чужеродных организмов, состоявшегося в рамках Всероссийской конференции по экологической безопасности (Москва, 4-5 июня 2002 г.).

Участники заседания Круглого стола единогласно приняли Резолюцию

  1. Признать проблему биологических инвазий чужеродных видов на территорию РФ одним из важнейших аспектов обеспечения экологической безопасности страны на современном этапе.
  2. Для решения данной проблемы необходимо создать Межведомственную Комиссию по биологическим инвазиям и Национальную Программу по инвазии чужеродных организмов на территорию и акваторию России.
  3. Необходимо дать общую оценку современной ситуации с инвазиями в Россию чужеродных видов, выявить основные транзитные пути, разработать прогнозы и меры по предотвращению, смягчению последствий и борьбе с обосновавшимися чужеродными вредными видами.
  4. Необходимо разработать единую законодательную основу, обеспечивающую контроль за несанкционированным завозом, интродукцией и акклиматизацией чужеродных организмов на территории России, и привести в соответствие все законодательные акты и положения, касающиеся этой проблемы.
  5. Признать необходимым и важным создание баз данных по отдельным группам адвентивных организмов с последующим объединением их в единую национальную базу данных по чужеродным (инвазийным) видам.
  6. Создать и опубликовать аннотированный список наиболее опасных (приоритетных) на территории России инвазийных видов.
  7. Создать сеть экспертов по проблеме инвазий.
  8. Развернуть PR-программу с целью ознакомления общественности и лиц, принимающих решения, с проблемами инвазий чужеродных вредных организмов.
  9. Создать в Интернете сайт по проблеме инвазий чужеродных организмов.


adopted at the Round Table meeting on the problem Environmental safety and invasions of alien organisms held within the framework of the All-Russian conference on the environmental safety (Moscow, 4-5 June, 2002).

The resolution was carried unanimously. The participants of the Round Table propose:

  1. To admit the problem of biological invasions of alien species as one of the most important aspects of the environmental safety of our country nowadays.
  2. To establish an interdepartmental commission on biological invasions and develop a national program on invasions of alien species into the Russian lands and water-bodies.
  3. To give general estimation of the current situation with invasions of alien species into Russia, to reveal their main transit routes, to make predictions and take measures on prevention, and softening of their consequences, and to struggle with alien harmful species.
  4. To develop united legislative basis controlling alien species brought through the border without sanctions, their introduction and naturalization in Russia and bring to conformity all the legislative acts and provisions related to this problem.
  5. To build databases for separate groups of alien organisms with the purpose to combine them into the united national database on alien species.
  6. To make and publish an annotated list of the most dangerous invasive species in Russia.
  7. To build up a network of experts on the invasion problem.
  8. To develop PR-program aiming to familiarize the public and decisions makers with the problems of alien harmful organisms.
  9. To make a sight on the problem of invasions of alien organisms in the Internet.

Наверх Наверх Наверх     Документ создан: 12.12.2005.     Документ изменен: 11.02.2012

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